It was a typical Tuesday morning for Donna Mina final fall, however she couldn’t shake the sensation that one thing was off.

She was up earlier than 9 a.m. and he or she seen her son, Paul, who lived downstairs of their Staten Island dwelling, didn’t depart for work that morning.

She requested him about it, however he didn’t give her a lot of a response. He wasn’t a morning particular person, so she didn’t press it, she mentioned.

Donna informed her eldest son that she beloved him and that she was frightened about him, as moms are likely to do.

However Paul, 32, informed her to not fear and reminded her that she’s all the time worrying, she mentioned, so she left shortly after for her common morning stroll.

It was the final time she’d discuss to Paul. Later that afternoon, he died of a drug overdose.

Paul, who died on Sept. 22, 2020, was certainly one of about 2,245 individuals in New York Metropolis to die of an opioid overdose throughout the COVID-19 pandemic between March 2020 and March 2021, in response to provisional knowledge from the U.S. Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention. This was up almost 40% from the earlier 12 months, in response to CDC provisional knowledge. 


Officers count on the quantity to rise as overdose knowledge turns into finalized, making 2020 the deadliest 12 months on file for drug overdoses within the metropolis, in response to well being division officers.

And whereas overdose deaths had been steadily rising throughout the years earlier than the pandemic, specialists say the issue grew worse after the town shifted its efforts to battling the COVID-19 virus, making it tougher for individuals combating habit, like Paul, to entry the assets they relied on for sobriety.

“The pandemic positively induced loads of anxiousness, loads of stress,” mentioned Donna Mina about her son.

How COVID-19 wreaked havoc on remedy companies

Many restoration facilities shut their doorways or diminished capability when the virus first hit the town. There was additionally the extra burden of presenting a adverse COVID check to entry remedy. However fast COVID checks weren’t straightforward to come back by early within the pandemic and for somebody looking for take care of habit, time isn’t a luxurious they’ll afford.

When Paul — who doesn’t share the identical final title as his mother and father — relapsed in April 2020, he informed his father he wanted to enter a restoration heart instantly. 

Robert Mina began making telephone calls, and located a number of locations in a position to take his son.

“However all of the yeses got here with a COVID check and no one might get me a COVID check, a fast COVID check at the moment fast sufficient,” Mina mentioned. “I will not be right here Monday, he says to me.” 

They lastly discovered a spot that evening in Pennsylvania that was lined below Paul’s insurance coverage as a metropolis worker with the Division of Parks & Recreation. He stayed for 30 days.

Substance use dysfunction service suppliers equivalent to Phoenix Home say the pandemic put extra stress on them.

“During the last 12 months and a half the behavioral healthcare workforce has been confronted with challenges greater than we have ever seen — an opioid epidemic within a COVID-19 pandemic,” mentioned Shaun Willis, director of Restoration Providers and Neighborhood Outreach for Phoenix Home, a community of restoration facilities in New York Metropolis and Lengthy Island. “It has been difficult to say the least.”

Willis mentioned the pandemic harm the group’s skill to do referrals. With out the foot visitors coming in, there wasn’t a technique to join individuals to the assets they wanted like housing or advantages counselors. 

There was additionally the problem of bodily isolation, which not solely exacerbated psychological well being points equivalent to anxiousness and despair, but additionally elevated the possibilities for overdoses.

Suppliers and advocates usually discourage utilizing medication alone in circumstances of overdose the place Narcan, treatment used to reverse probably deadly opioid overdoses, may have to be administered.

“‘Don’t use alone’ is a security mechanism that we discuss so with the pandemic there was loads of remoted use,” Willis mentioned.

However this ran counter to reigning public well being steerage final 12 months with quarantine and social distancing mandates in place.

In 2019, FDNY EMS handled 4,496 sufferers with Narcan. In 2020, that quantity went as much as 5,666. And thru October this 12 months, the variety of sufferers handled with Narcan had already reached 5,985.

The numbers have gone up whilst the overall variety of calls to 911 EMS has decreased. That development is mirrored on this 12 months’s numbers to this point.

How COVID made the specter of fentanyl worse

The overdose final 12 months wasn’t the primary for Paul. 

Robert Mina remembers Paul overdosing about 5 years earlier. He mentioned he efficiently administered CPR when he discovered Paul.

However this time was completely different due to fentanyl. 

Fentanyl used to primarily be a filler drug for opiates like heroin, however sellers throughout the pandemic started bulking out their merchandise amid restricted provides and rising prices on account of the disrupted world provide chains that impacted almost each trade.

It’s now discovered in additional sorts of medication, together with cocaine, methamphetamine and different benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics acquired from non-pharmaceutical sources, in response to the New York Metropolis Division of Well being and Psychological Hygiene.

New York Police Division knowledge discovered that greater than 80% of heroin examined contained fentanyl within the final quarter of 2020.

Paul’s toxicology report revealed he had extra fentanyl in his system than every other narcotic, his father mentioned.

The specter of fentanyl-laced medication is so prevalent in New York Metropolis and throughout the larger Northeast area of the USA, that suppliers say it’s secure to imagine that each one non-pharmaceutical medication are laced with it until confirmed in any other case. 

“We positively know that fentanyl is now actually a steady a part of the drug provide,” mentioned Dr. Chinazo Cunningham, govt deputy commissioner of Well being and Psychological Hygiene. “That was not the case a number of years in the past and so we’re seeing growing proportions of fentanyl-related overdose deaths.”

Fentanyl is 100 instances stronger than heroin and solely requires a number of salt-like grains to trigger an overdose, officers mentioned. 

When Robert Mina discovered Paul in his rest room that Tuesday afternoon in 2020, he administered CPR nevertheless it didn’t assist.

“I simply keep in mind screaming to rush up and hurry up and hurry up as a result of I simply had a sense I didn’t have him,” he mentioned about telling his daughter, who was additionally there on the time, to name 911. 

He grabbed Narcan that he had upstairs and administered it, nevertheless it didn’t work. 

Mina was nonetheless pumping Paul’s chest when the primary responders got here and took over.

“They hit him with Narcan,” he mentioned. “They injected him with one thing. They only could not get him. It was the fentanyl.”


Combating drug overdoses with out knowledge

The town’s publicly accessible overdose knowledge solely goes by September 2020, a lag of greater than a 12 months. And people numbers, together with 2019 overdose numbers, are nonetheless categorised as provisional. 

“Whereas it’s typical to have some lag time in reporting overdose deaths for the prior 12 months, knowledge from 2019 and 2020 have been uniquely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic on the stage of turnaround instances for these sorts of investigations,” a Division of Well being spokesperson mentioned.

Nonetheless, primarily based on the primary three quarters of information from final 12 months, officers say that 2020 is on observe to be the worst 12 months on file for overdose deaths within the metropolis. 

“If there’s catching up they should do then we have to do it straight away,” Mayor Invoice de Blasio mentioned in response to a query from NY1 at a information convention final week.

Overdose knowledge is collected and reviewed by the well being division’s Bureau of Important Statistics and the Workplace of Chief Medical Examiner. And whereas in pre-pandemic instances, the method could possibly be prolonged, this delay in info gathering is unusually lengthy, officers mentioned.

“We have to catch up, it’s necessary,” the mayor mentioned. “They’ve had — different places of work, I am not going to evaluate different places of work — I am glad for the work that they do, however what the Division of Well being has been doing has been seismic and overwhelming.”

Donna and Robert Mina mentioned it took seven months for them to get the outcomes of the post-mortem.

Each time they known as the Workplace of the Chief Medical Examiner to verify on the standing, they mentioned the response was that the division was backed up due to COVID. 

“I grew to become pleasant with this lady Christine on a primary title foundation,” Donna Mina mentioned. “I’m like, ‘Christine, did it come again but?’ ”

The delay in info can have concrete implications for the communities which can be impacted. 

Even organizations educated in serving high-risk populations, equivalent to BronxWorks, needed to take care of surprising circumstances throughout the pandemic.

At certainly one of their drop-in facilities for people who find themselves homeless, there have been three overdoses in the identical rest room over three consecutive days final 12 months. One was deadly, and the others have been near-misses, assistant govt director Scott Auwarter mentioned.

“It is nearly as if there was a foul batch or one thing that was going round,” he mentioned. “The delays [in information] simply make it tougher to reply in actual time.”

That’s why organizations like Phoenix Home are pushing to make prevention methods like free entry to fentanyl-testing strips and Narcan kits, which normally requires a physician’s prescription, extra broadly accessible at locations like bars, golf equipment and different locations the place individuals usually use medication.

“That is an opioid disaster, nevertheless it’s truly an entry disaster to remedies that we all know work and save lives,” mentioned Dr. Alexis Vien, medical director of Phoenix Home.

Many service suppliers and advocates really feel that habit remedy hasn’t been prioritized for years and that COVID solely exacerbated the problem.

“The funding for substance use problems has stagnated for many years and we have been doing extra with much less,” Willis mentioned.

“That is the brand new pandemic now, nevertheless it’s not being addressed like a pandemic,” Robert Mina mentioned.

These on the frontlines of this work, and other people instantly affected, just like the Minas, are preventing to make this concern a precedence by issues like funding and coverage.

They’re additionally attempting to battle the stigma round habit by sharing Paul’s story.

“We’re dropping our personal kids, and we’re dropping a era right here,” mentioned Robert. “We will’t hold doing this.”